Our mind remembers things by visualising the certain image of every word. So guess what, whenever we come across the word human, we visualise the image of a human being with one head, two arms, two legs, five fingers and so on based on what we have seen. But here are the top 10 rare mutations that will defy your definition of human being and will shock you. Yes, the mutation might seem a bit strange to you but these humans have proven the rare cases of their existence.


1. Polycephaly:

What would be the first thing that comes to your mind when someone talks about sharing your body with another person. Yes, exactly Polycephaly is one of those human mutant cases in which a sign body shares two heads. According to a survey by a renowned organisation, it has been found that polycephaly, the rare act of conjoined twins occurs one in 50,000 to 200,000 pregnancies. In general medics, the two heads are classified with two individuals, but they share the major organs and shockingly each one of the heads has control over only half of the limbs. Surprisingly people with Polycephaly mutant cases have enough coordination to walk, run and even drive. Scientists have even tried to separate the two bodies but the rare case of parasitic head delivered failure and facts reveal that such polycephaly cases do not survive.

2. Cyclopia:

Cyclopia is a very rare condition in which someone is born with one additional mental eye or two undivided eyes. The people born with this rare case will not have have a nose but have a similar structure above eyes. People born with Cyclopia are only 1 on 100,000. Most infants with cyclopean are aborted or stillborn. The one who are alive, die soon after birth and the condition is fatal.

3. Sirenomelia:

Have you seen a mermaid? Yes, because Sirenomelia is also called the mermaid syndrome. In this rare case of mutant, the baby is born with a single limb. It’s a very rare cased till now only 300 cases have been reported in the entire literature. Out of these 300 cases, 22% were born to mothers with diabetes and 15% were one of the pairs of identical twins. As per a survey, it has been reported that Sirenomelia is present only 1 in 60,000 to 100,000 births. Due to some scientific reasons, it is most common in males with the ratio of approximately 2.7:1 (males to females). The Sirenomelic cases die as infants but with reconstructive surgery, some have not lower than young adulthood.

The contribution to this case is suspected to be based on genetical disorders as well as environmental factors. In some of these 300 cases, there is only one artery and the two arteries that branch off the aorta and take blood to the lower and part of the embryo are not present. This results in the lack of nutrients in the lower portion of the embryo which causes underdevelopment. The infants with Sirenomelia often have problems related to the spine and gastrointestinal issues. The underdeveloped lungs are the most common cause of the death with Sirenomelia conditions. This mutant case has seven types, each classified by the development of lower limbs. The case with type one have all the bones necessary for legs while the skin connects the limb.

4. Proteus:

Proteus is the rarest case, one in the million. Proteus is the rare overgrowth condition which affects the bones, skin, organs and other tissues. This is a type of disorder that affects people asymmetrically. Veins and blood vessels can also be affected and people with Proteus are more susceptible to DVT, a type of blood clot. This can even lead Proteus affected people to death. In certain cases, people with proteus may have an intellectual disability and can be frequently prone to seizures. This mutant case can be observed by common physical characteristics such as the long face, outside corners of eyes that point downwards and wide nostrils.

5. Progeria:

The Progeria is a disorder which makes people prematurely aged. Progeria is a fatal disease that presents symptoms of ageing by the time patient is just two years old. As per most cases, these cases live hardly fourteen years and die of some heart disease. A general characteristic of progeria has prominent eyes, small chins, small nose and large eyes. Progeria has not effect on intelligence and motor skills but affects with a heart problem, bone problems and loss of fat in the body. These are the cases present, one in 4-8 million infants. There is no cure for Progeria at this point till now.

6. Polymelia:

Polymelia is another rarest case of mutation. You may sometimes think that you might have extra arms. Polymelia has made this possible in which people are born with extra lower limbs. Although the limbs are not completely formed. They extra limbs also have bones and blood in them. Polymelia can be caused by either thalidomide or hormone drugs. The development of extra limbs can be detected as early as four or five weeks into embryo development. The excessive limbs are due to incomplete separation of twins and surgery has made it possible to remove accessory limbs.

7. Hypertrichosis:

Hypertrichosis is people affected by the excessive growth of hairs covering their legs, arms and midsection. This can be removed by hair removal process including waxing, tweezing, laser hair removal or tropical treatments. There are only approximately 50 reported cases of hypertrichosis since the middle ages. This mutation is usually connected with cancer and can be caused by fetal alcohol syndrome or anti-seizure drugs. The mutation is affected by the environment and is commonly found in people of Mediterranean or South Asian descent.

8. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis:

Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis is sometimes called Tree man disease. This a very rare mutant case with an autosomal recessive skin disorder. The manifestation of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis usually appears during childhood with 7.5% cases in infancy, 61.5% between ages of 5-11 and 22.5% of cases during puberty.

The mutation is visible by lesions on the skin resulting from an HPV or human papillomavirus. These lesions can be flat-topped and vary from reddish brown colour and scaly called plaques and can be pink to violet in colour called papules. Papules are common on hands, feet, face and earlobes which the plaques are common on midsection, neck and limbs. These lesions, when exposed to sunlight, can become cancerous. Till this date now there is no preventive cure for Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis but a surgical removal is an option.

9. Ectrodactyly:

Ectrodactyly is caused by a mutation in chromosomes 10,7,3 or 2. In this rare case of mutation, the middle digit and a large cleft through the middle of extremity seem missing. Webbing may be present between digits. In another type of Ectrodactyly, there is the absence of cleft.

Ectrodactyly is a dominant disorder in which there are only 50% chances that an individual may be affected by this. This condition exists 1 in 18,000 people which are diagnosed upon birth. Reconstructive surgery is offered in some applicable cases. One of the fact states that Ectrodactyly does not affect the lifespan and intelligence of the people.


10. Anencephaly:

Anencephaly is a condition if neural tube disorder. During third to the fourth week of pregnancy, the neural tube closes and brain and the spinal cord forms. But in the case of Anencephaly, the neural tube does not close completely, leaving the brain exposed to amniotic fluids which cause degeneration of nervous tissues. The brain of such babies is generally missing part of the skull, rendering them blind, deaf and unable to gain consciousness. Babies born with this case are either stillborn or hardly manage to live few weeks. Anencephaly is quite rare and only 3 in 10,000 babies are born with this mutation. Anencephaly has been linked with a deficiency in B9 or folate. Supplementing folic acid ( a synthetic version of folate) can decrease the chances by 50%. Anencephaly is identifiable during pregnancy through imaging and till now there is no assured cure for this mutant case.

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